For One Day, Let’s Just be Thankful

This has been a tough year.  It feels as though no matter whether your candidate won or lost, we’ve all lost a little bit of ourselves.  Many have lost friends, have become estranged from family, have felt threatened or intimidated, or have been overcome by anger and frustration.  American elections are supposed to bring out the best of our democracy.  This election brought out the worst.  It is in this divisive time that we must remember that Thanksgiving – in a sense our most apolitical and secular national holiday – was borne of division.  In 1864, in the midst of the Civil War, President Lincoln declared a day of Thanksgiving for all Americans (I’ve posted the entire proclamation for your leisure):

Washington, D.C.
October 3, 1863

By the President of the United States of America.

A Proclamation.

The year that is drawing towards its close, has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies. To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we are prone to forget the source from which they come, others have been added, which are of so extraordinary a nature, that they cannot fail to penetrate and soften even the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever watchful providence of Almighty God. In the midst of a civil war of unequalled magnitude and severity, which has sometimes seemed to foreign States to invite and to provoke their aggression, peace has been preserved with all nations, order has been maintained, the laws have been respected and obeyed, and harmony has prevailed everywhere except in the theatre of military conflict; while that theatre has been greatly contracted by the advancing armies and navies of the Union. Needful diversions of wealth and of strength from the fields of peaceful industry to the national defence, have not arrested the plough, the shuttle or the ship; the axe has enlarged the borders of our settlements, and the mines, as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals, have yielded even more abundantly than heretofore. Population has steadily increased, notwithstanding the waste that has been made in the camp, the siege and the battle-field; and the country, rejoicing in the consciousness of augmented strength and vigor, is permitted to expect continuance of years with large increase of freedom. No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who, while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy. It has seemed to me fit and proper that they should be solemnly, reverently and gratefully acknowledged as with one heart and one voice by the whole American People. I do therefore invite my fellow citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next, as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens. And I recommend to them that while offering up the ascriptions justly due to Him for such singular deliverances and blessings, they do also, with humble penitence for our national perverseness and disobedience, commend to His tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife in which we are unavoidably engaged, and fervently implore the interposition of the Almighty Hand to heal the wounds of the nation and to restore it as soon as may be consistent with the Divine purposes to the full enjoyment of peace, harmony, tranquillity and Union.

This description of the United States would seem foreign to many Americans in 1864.  The Country was torn by violence, a million people would be dead by the end of the Civil War.  Millions more would be in mourning for the loss of their homes, their livelihoods, and their loved ones, and yet – Thanksgiving.

Yesterday morning on the radio, I heard people from all over this great nation – from Spokane to Houston or Oneida – talk about how they would not be going home for Thanksgiving for the first time in 15, 25, 45, or even 60 years.  Each of them cited political strife and disunity as the cause for their choice, yet none of these people sounded happy or proud to make this change.  Rather, they all sounded exhausted.  It is clear that all of us, no matter our politics, religion, or current predicament, need a respite from what seems like an unending political season.  Even here in Northern Virginia, it is not too much to suggest that we simply take a day off.  Stop checking the news, stop making underhanded remarks about some political figure or party.  Just take a moment to enjoy all of the good in the world.  For many, this may be something not done for decades.

So, I propose a simple rule for tomorrow.  No politics.  That’s all.  While this will be most helpful to those with political division at the dinner table, my wife and I will nevertheless be asking our guests to adhere by this rule, even though we believe that they all voted the same way earlier this month.

thanksgiving-turkey-gif-dfubmj-clipartLet’s have a day of Thanksgiving.  Let’s talk about football and theater, about our childhoods and our aspirations, about our favorite recipes and hopes for a white Christmas and a short winter.  Leaving our frustrations and divisions and, dare I say, strong opinions behind, if only for a few hours, may help bring us back together, allowing us to remember that we are all a collective people.  We are Americans.  We are free.  And, for that, we should be thankful.



Rebirth: The Small City

The successes of New York City, Boston, San Francisco, Washington, Denver, Houston, Chicago, and Minneapolis have led to some curious consequences.  More than ever, small cities* such as Columbus, Omaha, Tucsan, Birmingham, Allentown, Hartford, and even Des Moines are seeing unprecedented growth in their downtown areas, and new demand resulting in increased development.  Only a few decades ago, these cities’ primary marketing tool was cost differential.  Put simply, they were cheaper places to live.  That suggestion, in turn, excused the lack of big city excitement available to residents.  Today, these cities have changed their perspectives, looking to their larger counterparts for inspiration and ideas.  The outcome is already evident: their reputations are no longer about living cheaply, but about having identities people embrace and opportunities people enjoy and write home about.

*Small City: There is certainly no agreed-upon definition of city, but for the purposes of this piece, a small city has a metropolitan area of between 500,000 and 2 million people.  These cities are usually characterized as the cities of secondary or tertiary economic and cultural importance in their respective larger sections of the United States, serving as regional, rather than national centers.  They also tend to lack certain amenities of large and medium-sized cities such as airport hubs, world-renowned museums, and multiple major league professional sports teams.  They are, however, large enough to be a self-sustaining economic center with diverse industries, high quality institutions of higher education, and city-focused transportation systems and infrastructure.

Over the past 25 years, America’s largest cities have undergone grand redevelopments.  Perhaps due to shifts in economic sectors and market demand, or perhaps due to the influence of Kurt Russell’s dystopian 1981 in the hit film, Escape from New York…

…cities gained a determination to invest in and reinvent themselves.  Cities from Washington to San Francisco have seen an unprecedented and – by 1981 standards – almost unprecedented demand in downtown-area housing and entertainment.   These new residents have brought significant positive benefit to the urban core, but have overwhelmed city infrastructure.  Housing is in short supply and prices have skyrocketed.  These issues are now leading the nation’s young professionals to choose between a rock and a hard place; to either live in a smaller-than-you-would-like, more-expensive-than-you-would-like apartment with access to some of the world’s best cultural institutions, restaurants, parks, and entertainment but no suitable living space (or disposable income) to spread out or start a family, or:

Live in a place where the cost of life is more affordable.


These ads for Columbus, OH are in Metrorail stations, encouraging Millennials to reconsider the cost of their lives in Washington, DC.

The problem with this decision has always been, in part, that the latter option required giving up everything that a big city offers.  It meant moving to a car-dependent single-family home in the suburbs with no nightlife, no nearby entertainment venues, no top-notch parks, nothing aside from chain restaurants, and certainly no decent museums or professional theaters.  However, with Millennials demanding to live in a place with these opportunities but no longer able to afford Manhattan or Haight-Ashbury (at least not in the long-term), some smaller cities saw an opportunity.  First, it was Portland, Seattle, Denver, Salt Lake, Nashville, and Charlotte.  Now, even smaller cities are getting in on the action.  This is not just a trickle-down effect.  This is about a fundamental change in culture, desires, and planning concepts.

The era of the totally car-dependent city, or at least the successful and car-dependent city, is over.  Millennials want options, even if they need a car to get some places.  This is an important distinction.  A single light-rail line, or bus rapid transit corridor, or bike lane network, will not rid most residents of the need for a personal vehicle.  Meeting this goal would require many rail lines, a vast and frequent bus network, and development at levels that would support such a lifestyle change.  This is a worthy goal, but this does not need to be completed in order to attract young professionals.  The reason? Placemaking.

Small cities have learned lessons from the trials and errors of their fellow, larger cities.  First, placing a transit line in a suburban, car-oriented environment without improvements to the surrounding area with amenities such as sidewalks, with appropriate zoning, crosswalks, and with low-speed pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly streets is a recipe for failure.  If there is not a critical mass of residences or businesses near the transit line, it will fail.  If people cannot safely and comfortably access the stations and surrounding neighborhoods, the service will fail.  Second, a transit line won’t see overwhelming ridership in its first year, or its fifth year.  To that end, neither will a new highway if it doesn’t connect appropriately into a larger, already-robust system.  This is okay, as these investments spur development over the course of one or two decades.  Third, the overall approach has to be about the specific districts or neighborhoods along its route, not the corridor.  An east-west transit line needs north-south connections at its stations.  It needs a network of bicycle lanes and complete streets.  Failure to make appropriate improvements would be similar to constructing a superhighway but providing local connections only via dirt roads.  Most importantly, though, and contrary to the popular belief only a few years ago, small cities have learned that transit and bicycling can be not only popular but highly successful.

If these trends toward progressive planning and smart growth continue, the next era of American development could be that of the small city right alongside the continued success of America’s great large cities.  As these small cities harbor and grow their own, new cultural identities and institutions, they can grow to become truly dynamic urban centers.


The Tucsan “SunLink” Streetcar


Hartford’s CTFastTrack Bus Rapid Transit









Protected Bikeway in Columbus



Bikeway in Omaha (Conceptual)








Riverwalk Park and Center Street Pedestrian Bridge in Des Moines


How to Fix Chicago’s Iconic Road

Lake Shore Drive is a monumental highway.  There’s nothing quite like it.  Day or night, driving into or out of the city, to the north or to the south, it provides an amazing panorama of Chicago’s neighborhoods, skyline, parks, museums, and – of course – Lake Michigan.  The road has been memorialized in song:

Now, IDOT is evaluating the needed reconstruction of the iconic road, and civic groups are advocating for more space for transit.  Nearly 1,000 buses a day carry nearly 70,000 people up and down the northern half of the Drive every day, joining 161,000 drivers that use this segment.  That means that while 30% of people on the road are using transit, the lack of a dedicated travel lane for these buses means that they are stuck behind these drivers in every lane.  Meanwhile, crowded bicycle and pedestrian paths do not have the width to serve these users.  In a sense, Lake Shore Drive is a truly multimodal facility.  Conversely, it’s outdated, pedestrian-unfriendly, and favors cars over transit riders, cyclists, and pedestrians in nearly every way.  Ironically, the same series of tunnels that provide pedestrian access to the Lakefront Trail are necessitated by the barrier that is the road itself, separating neighborhoods from the lake and beaches just to the east.

Meanwhile, to the west, the CTA Red Line is horribly crowded and also in redesign.  The transit demands on this corridor are immense.  In a broader sense, the transportation demands on the corridor are immense, which is why smart planning is needed.  A lane of transit can carry far more people than a lane for private vehicles.  With all of these factors considered, it’s time to think boldly.   The status quo is not serving the neighborhoods along and north of the Drive optimally.  It’s time for a change.

What Will Solve the Problem?

Given the growing demands along the corridor, it’s clear that the only sustainable solution rides on rails rather than asphalt.  A light rail line down the middle of the corridor, with boulevard road concept and expanded bike and pedestrian facilities would provide a significant improvement for all users.  Considering that the Right-of-Way (ROW) is 220-feet wide along much of the segment from Michigan Avenue to Hollywood (Including the Marine Drive/North Lake Shore Drive Service Road), there is sufficient space for rapid transit, express buses, through lanes, local and long-distance cycle-tracks (bike lines), service roads, and lots of greenery with the space to allocate turn lanes, transit stations, and even pedestrian plazas where desired.

lake-shore-drive-remix (2)

Concept: Lake Shore Drive as a Multimodal Boulevard (Facing North)

This investment would be reasonable in cost, given that there would be no ROW needs, the road will need to be rebuilt anyway, and that the local neighborhoods adjacent to the street are already composed of residents who use transit daily and are suffering from overcrowded trains.  This plan would provide significant relief to Red Line riders, Lake Shore Drive bus riders, the growing contingent of cyclists, and people looking to access the lakefront.

“Hey,  I’m Driving Here!”

This plan would undoubtedly draw rebuke from some drivers, primarily in the far north side neighborhoods and near north side suburbs, who depend on Lake Shore Drive to get to work.  While this plan no longer gives preference to drivers over other modes, it does not preclude drivers either.  Adding higher capacity modes through these high-density areas will lead more people to choose transit, decreasing the demand for road space.  Additionally, the rapid bus lanes could provide a faster and more dependable trip for those traveling between the suburbs and Downtown Chicago than they have currently by permitting PACE and the CTA to share the lanes.

Where Does This Transit Line Go?

North side, meet the South Side.  If this line is built, it would not be Chicago’s only light rail line.  The southern line, formerly the Illinois Central South Chicago branch, is operated by Metra on a schedule far different from the operator’s other services.  The Metra Electric Line South Chicago Branch runs from Millennium Park to 93rd Street on the far South Side, stopping every 1/2 mile and running at headways during the week more aligned with rapid rail service than commuter rail service.  However, this service is highly limited on weekends despite serving highly transit-dependent communities that fill CTA buses (especially the #6, #15, #28).  There is so much demand in these areas that the CTA’s Jump service (#J14) was launched along this corridor to provide faster service and more capacity.  This is a clear case of an underutilized rail line being supplemented with bus service – not too optimal or efficient.


Neighborhoods and Destinations Along the Proposed Light Rail Line

By connecting the North Lake Shore Drive light rail with the South Chicago line via the underground streets (likely Lower Randolph Street and the notoriously invisible McCormick Place Busway), a continuous north-south service could be initiated that would serve 18 unique neighborhoods and 10 major tourist areas.

A Practical and Pragmatic Solution

The best part of this plan is that it’s feasible.  There really is significant transit demand along this corridor, Chicago has already determined the need to provide more car-free mobility options for the city’s residents and workers, and the ROW needed to make this happen already exists.  This investment would support the ever-increasing demands for more housing development in the North Side neighborhoods along Lake Michigan, while injecting new life into the markets of lakefront neighborhoods south of the South loop, while giving existing residents a more dependable connection to jobs and Chicago’s vast array of parks and downtown festivals.

If Lake Shore Drive is rebuilt as it is, a divided highway will separate these North Side neighborhoods from its residents for another half-century.  Reclaiming the Lake and the public ROW has to start now.  It’s time to be bold.

Securing American Judaism for the Next Generation

Happy Hanukkah (or is it Chanukah?) everyone!  It’s time to buy some gifts, make some latkes, light some candles, spin a dreidel, and commemorate the re-dedication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (did you forget this part?).  After all, the story of Hanukkah is based on the Maccabee Rebellion, where the Maccabees, a band of gorilla warriors, launched an attack on the Hellenistic occupants of their homeland to retake the city.  When the Maccabees liberated the Second Temple, their first order of duty was to light the sacred lamps.  However, oil was in limited supply.  So limited that the victors thought that it was only enough for a single night.  When the oil burned for eight days, they took it to be a miracle and a demonstration of the commitment that G-d had for their cause.

While oil makes everything delicious, and while gifts – while a modern addition to the holiday – are a nice touch, perhaps there is a real opportunity in this holiday to reconsider the message of the celebration.  Rather than focusing on the longevity of the oil alone, perhaps the battles and victories are more important.  Despite the long odds, and the lack of faith that many in the community had in the Maccabees, their forces nonetheless succeeded in their mission.  They fought for religious freedom – which was horribly oppressed by the Roman invaders – and for the unique identity of their Jewish brothers and sisters.  They let neither their long odds, the unknowns, nor the perceived disinterest of many in the community detract from their mission.  As a reward, they were given longevity, both of the light and their religion.

So how can we take that message forward today?  Abandoning our safe havens may be the first step.   Too often, synagogues from the most liberal to the most orthodox ends of the spectrum become entrenched; thinking inwardly and acting inwardly.  I am not speaking of the need for more philanthropy, which is an important thing, but of the need for greater community-wide engagement and outreach.  The Maccabees could have gone off to an unsettled place and formed their own community, free of oppression, but they chose instead to engage their community and, in turn, save their oppressed friends and neighbors.  In this sense, greater cooperation and integration within Jewish communities throughout the country is crucial.  While there are many engaged, boots on the ground Jewish Federations that are doing fantastic work, there are those Federations that see their role as clearinghouses for donations and may need to change their perspective.

Secondly, I think communities throughout the country can take a page out of the playbook of the Chabad movement and Evangelical Christianity.  While I am not suggesting proselytization, I am suggested that finding more unorthodox (pun intended) ways to engage with the local community is critical.  The synagogue – both the organization and the building – cannot be valued above the members of its Jewish community, both those who are members of the synagogue and those who are not.  Perhaps offsite programming, offsite alternative religious services, outreach to those who may not feel comfortable reaching out to the synagogue, and surveying that is less concerned with the needs of active members than of inactive members or nonmembers would allow membership to grow.

When a synagogue feels like an exclusive club, it cannot simultaneously be welcoming, open, and inclusive.  For those who are active members, I ask: where are your synagogue’s future leaders?  At the average Reform, Reconstructionist, or Conservative synagogue in this country, they’re not in shul – they don’t even belong.

So…where are they?  In most cities, the younger populations (under 40) are in urban neighborhoods.  Evangelical churches have developed a highly successful model of opening branch locations in growing neighborhoods.  These are generally not fanciful or expensive buildings, but are more or less a community center for Evangelical Christians in the area.  Think: basic campus Hillel.  There are very few examples of such places for Jewish urban young professionals, which gives many only a few options:

  1. Drive a long way to synagogue (that is, if you have a car or there’s a long public transit line that happens to get you to the synagogue);
  2. Live in the suburbs (which many Millennials do not want to do), or;
  3. Not engage with the Jewish community (the most common result).

Yet, significant resources are not being put in place to draw out these people who represent the future of our communities and the Jewish People.  For some, the response might seem obvious: if Millennials want these things, they should be the leaders in getting programming and religious services into cities.  To those people, I am curious as to how interested you really are in the future of our people.  Where those leaders do exist, they may not know who to call, what to ask, or what is possible.  Where there are potential congregants, they may not have the time, energy, or money to make this happen.  There is no reason to require young Jews to form an organic new community when a well-organized, well-funded community is so nearby.

The miracle of Hanukkah is intended to teach us all that taking risks and engaging in hard work to ensure a brighter future will be rewarded.  The real miracle of Hanukkah is not the oil or the light, but the future that the actions of the Maccabees helped to provide for the Jewish People.  We may not need guerrilla warfare to build stronger, lasting communities, but we can strategize, invest, and engage to ensure a Jewish future for our children and grandchildren.

So, what’s the legacy of your synagogue?  Of your community?  Will it slowly fade into obscurity as members pass away and move on?  Or will it contribute to the community by creating a meaningful future for the next generation?


We Can Be Free : My Undying Faith in the American Ideal

The Plot Against America begins with a charismatic Republican taking advantage of people’s fears, preying on their fears, and assuring Americans that the perceived threat, or the conspiratorial threat of the immigrant conspiracy, is the true danger, logic aside.  This novelization of alternative history is, today, beginning to sound more and more like fact.  Philip Roth’s story details how it could have happened that the Jews, rather than the Nazis, became the public’s indicted villains of World War II.  In the story, the United States government silenced and killed off critics to further the constructs of hatred and fear while propagandizing the supposed perfection of the Christian-American narrative.

We will always have hate and prejudice in society.  Anyone who thinks otherwise is arrogant.  Yet, American society has survived religious hatred, racial hatred, sexual hatred, political hatred, ethnic hatred, and class hatred.  We have absolved our nation of none of these deep-seated hatreds, but over time many have been repressed and routed away from the centers of public society.  Generally, we have witnessed fewer and fewer instances of outright endorsements of bigotry, mistreatment, or racism by leaders and officials.  This has been perhaps the greatest success of the last half-century.  For those who see this as oppression of speech, so be it, but it is difficult to believe that our nation has been made worse by greater acceptance of – and greater pressure to accept – the “other.”

While public discussion of people’s hatreds may have departed from the public realm for a while, these seem to be returning to the public conversation, often in the form of charged diatribes.  For the purposes of comprehensive analysis, it may be rightly assumed that this new era of “freedom” began just over seven years ago, with the election of a non-White President.  For context in this conversation, I believe that it was not Barack Obama being Black that caused this groundswell of anger, but more generally the fact that he is not White/European-American.  Somehow, it seems unlikely that an Hispanic or Asian-American president would have suffered fewer indignities and insults related to race and religion.  These include racially-charged theories on comment boards, as well as those promoted by opposition media and political leaders.

When this groundswell of opposition resulted in the success of the Tea Party Patriots candidates in the 2010 midterm election, the anger was legitimized.  Tea Party officials placed full blame on the President for everything, even if he had never been part of the decision, or he did not have the power to make such a decision, or if such a decision had ever existed.  They appealed to the lowest common denominator, convincing their supporters that individual rights and freedoms were under attack.  Despite decades of relatively conservative governments (by United States standards), a socialist conspiracy was supposedly underway to take away guns, make people ultra-dependent on the government, delegitimize our military might, and to destroy the American spirit.

This campaign worked well, despite the lack of evidence to support these claims, until the economic conditions of Americans started improving again.  With a nation no longer wallowing under the forces of high unemployment, low morale, lack of opportunity, and anxiety about the future, the Tea Party has begun to lose their power.  Further, despite continued anti-Obama propaganda, the President – who has only a year left in office – has not acted to take away guns, ban free speech, steal people’s property, or force people into breeding colonies.

(Okay, that last one might be made-up).

So what does a hate-monger do when his propagandizing fails to come to fruition?   Go back to his roots, of course.  If hating one brown person didn’t work, how about hating a whole nation of them?  This reincarnation has been provided thanks to GOP Presidential candidates Donald Trump and Ben Carson whose eccentric and odd campaigns have become hate-fests, with everything from absurd and unfounded claims about thousands of Muslim-Americans celebrating in Jersey City as the World Trade Centers fell, to religious litmus-tests for everything from immigration to the Presidency.  Of course, intertwined with this concept is a complete misrepresentation of the dynamics and sects of Islam at play in Syria.**

**(For example, the Alawites are a rather liberal branch of Shia and the Druze are not Muslim at all.  ISIS, meanwhile, is made of an extremist, fundamentalist ideology of Sunni Muslims.  Shia and Sunni do not get along particularly well, so to label Shia Muslims as potential members of ISIS makes little sense.  Even most Sunnis do not subscribe to the extreme ISIS/Al-Qaeda/Terrorist-Radical-Extremist ideology.  It would be akin to assuming all Christians adhere to the teachings of the KKK or Westboro Baptist Church missions of hatred and terror.)

Regardless, the hateful rhetoric is increasing.  As this occurs, a buffer is provided to those who want to engage in hateful speech and actions against their neighbors.  This mob mentality is anti-American, as can be seen through early American documents, such as the Thomas Jefferson-authored Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom in Virginia or the Constitution of the United States.  More recent purveyors of this American ideology include Martin Luther King, who spoke often of equality in a diverse nation, and even George W. Bush, who despite many failings in the Oval Office, fought tirelessly to ensure that Muslim-Americans, many of whom had fled their homelands to escape extremists, and Muslim societies throughout the world, did not become scapegoats for the actions of a few terrorists on September 11th, 2001 who happened to adhere to an extremist and radial branch of Islam.

As Mr. Trump ramps up his suggestions that we register adherents to Islam, place government monitoring on all Mosques, or shutter them entirely, and as Dr. Carson calls for surveillance of “radicalizing” communities, we must be vigilant of the fact that these actions would symbolize an end to American religious freedom.  One of the proudest aspects of American history is our strong resolve never to endorse one religion over another and never to place undue restrictions on a specific religion.  This culture of inclusiveness has provided Quakers, Jews, Muslims, Catholics, Hindus, and countless other minority religions with a free and uninhibited place to practice their religions for well over two centuries.

In the spirit of inclusiveness, it may also be worth considering that Americans are still far more likely to be killed or assaulted by American-born Americans; that your mother, father, spouse, or child is far more likely to be killed by a legally-produced and legally-purchased weapon in the United States than by any homemade device built by a Muslim terrorist.  If we, as a diverse-yet-inclusive melting pot of a nation, can survive the most deadly and painful terrorist attack in our history without losing sight of the American ideals of peace and freedom, then we can find it in our hearts to be compassionate people and save those who are living in fear for their lives and their family’s lives due to attacks from ISIS terrorists.

In the 1930’s, our nation; my nation, chose not to save European Jews from genocide.  Whether this was due to antisemitism or to some sort of fear that these persecuted peoples were instead Nazi secret agents, we will never know.  In the 1970’s, we chose to ignore the slaughters in Cambodia and Bangladesh.  In the 1990’s, we chose not to save the Tutsi population in Rwanda.  At the beginning of this century, we chose to ignore the genocides in the Darfur region of Sudan.  As we time and again have failed to learn from history, we seem forever doomed to repeat our failures.  We again must choose, as we did in the 1930’s, between changing course and embodying our ideology of inclusiveness, or embracing underlying feelings of hate and distrust.  I hope we are able to make the truly American decision and open our hearts and our borders for those suffering.  This response will show our naysayers and detractors who we really are, and will help us to prevent ISIS from claiming even more innocent victims.

When the last child cries for a crust of bread
When the last man dies for just words that he said
When there’s shelter over the poorest head
We shall be free

When the last thing we notice is the color of skin
And the first thing we look for is the beauty within
When the skies and the oceans are clean again
Then we shall be free

When we’re free to love anyone we choose
When this world’s big enough for all different views
When we all can worship from our own kind of pew
Then we shall be free

And when money talks for the very last time
And nobody walks a step behind
When there’s only one race and that’s mankind
Then we shall be free

– Garth Brooks and Stephanie Davis, 1992